Athene invented the flute, the trumpet, the earthenware pot, the plough, the rake, the ox-yoke, the horse-bridle, the chariot, and the ship. She first taught the science of numbers, and all women’s arts, such as cooking, weaving, and spinning. Although a goddess of war, she gets no pleasure from battle, as Ares and Eres do, but rather from settling disputes, and upholding law by pacific means. She bears no arms in times of peace and, if she needs any, will usually borrow a set from Zeus (Jupiter). Her mercy is great: when the judges’ votes are equal in a criminal trial at the Areiopagus, she always gives a casting vote to liberate the accused. Yet, once engaged in battle, she never loses the day, even against Ares (Mars) himself, being better grounded in tactics and strategy than he; and wise captains always approach her for advice.
– Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, 25.a
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